15 Amazing Abstract Examples (2018 Edition) (2023)

15 Amazing Abstract Examples (2018 Edition) (1)Download this writing tool in Word format (.docx)

What is a Summary/Definition?

An abstract is a carefully written summary of an academic or research article. However, there is much more to a successful resume than just writing an abstract.

This article provides you with abstract examples. These abstract examples will help you understand what an executive summary is and isn't. After reading this article, you will also be able to understand the right tone, style, and length of an abstract.

These abstract examples also show you how varied abstracts can be depending on the topic. An abstract of an original empirical research in the natural or social sciences is very different from an abstract of a humanities article.

What is the purpose of an abstract?

All of the abstract examples you receive share several common characteristics. All abstracts are designed to summarize the main points of the research article.

Think of a summary like the back cover of a book. He often judges the contents of the book by what he reads on the back cover, which helps him decide whether or not to buy the book.

Many research articles are published in academic databases, but the reader may have to pay for the final copy. The summary helps the reader decide whether or not to buy the item.

In cases where you are a student or researcher, the abstract will let you know if the full article is worth reading.

Another purpose of an abstract is to help you encourage future research in your field. Includes a summarykeywords, which helps you and other researchers find your article.

Writing a good abstract makes you a more professional writer and is essential for study.

You can use your abstract to submit your research to peer-reviewed journals or to apply for funding.

What does an abstract contain?

What does the summary contain?it depends to a large extent on the type of study, the research design and the discipline. Elements that an abstract may include include a brief background statement that outlines the importance of the research, a description of the problem, the methods used in the research, a summary of the results, and any conclusions or implications.

Although the most important thing to keep in mind when writing an abstract isbrevity, you also need to fit a lot of relevant information into a relatively small space.

By reading the following abstract examples, you will better understand how to find the right balance between too much and too little information.

You'll also learn how to format abstracts in different ways depending on the needs of your degree program or the editorial guidelines for a journal you're submitting to.

Summary Types

According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab resource, there are twodifferent types of summaries: informative and descriptive.

Although informative and descriptive summaries look similar, they differ in a few important respects.

An informative summary contains all information about the investigation, including the results and the conclusion.

A descriptive summary is usually much shorter and doesn't contain as much information. Rather, the descriptive abstract just tells the reader what the research or article is about and not much else.

The descriptive summary is more of a slogan or teaser, while the informative summary is more like an executive summary.

The examples below show both types of summaries.

abstract examples

Informative summary example 1

Emotional intelligence (EQ) has been correlated with leadership effectiveness in organizations. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study assesses the importance of emotional intelligence for academic achievement in secondary school. The Emotional Intelligence rating scale was used, as were semi-structured interviews with teachers. Participant ratings were collected. Emotional intelligence has been found to be positively correlated with academic success. Implications for pedagogical practice are discussed.


This is a typical briefing for empirical research in the social sciences. Most news briefs proceed logically to reflect the organization of the main article: with sections on background, methods, results and conclusions.

Informative summary example 2

Social learning occurs through observing others within a community. In diverse urban landscapes and through digital media, social learning can be qualitatively different from social learning that takes place within families and narrow social circles. This study examines the differences between the social learning that occurs at home and the social learning that occurs through viewing celebrities and other role models online. The results show that social learning takes place just as effectively. These results show that social learning does not only take place in familiar social circles and that observing others can lead to diverse types of learning.


This is a typical briefing for empirical research in the social sciences. After the background statement, the author discusses the problem statement or research question, followed by the findings and conclusions.

(Video) The Most Famous Painters Today: A Reasoned Top 20 Using Objective Career Facts

Informative summary example 3

Few studies have examined the relationship between visual imagery and emotional responses to media consumption. This study fills the gap in the literature through the use of content analysis. Using content analysis methods, five news media television sites were analyzed over a period of six months. Using the Yolanda Metrics method, the researchers determined the top ten words used on each of the media pages. Implications and suggestions for future research are included.


This summary provides an informative summary of aquantitativelyContent Analysis Study. The author provides the background information, discusses the methods and also describes the conclusions of the research.

Informative summary example 4

This study examines the relationship between nursing educators' theoretical views and nursing outcomes. Using a qualitative descriptive study, researchers conducted face-to-face interviews with nursing students and nursing educators. The results show that the theoretical perspectives of nursing educators are directly related to the self-image of nurses. Nursing educators need to be aware of their biases and theoretical views when teaching students.


This example shows how to write an abstract for aqualitativelearn. Qualitative studies also have clearly defined research methods. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind the general principles of writing information summaries. Always start with the research question or problem and continue by describing the research methods and results in one sentence.

Informative summary example 5

Aborigines have poorer health outcomes compared to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this study, public health researchers performed an analysis of epidemiological data using the results of the Cross-Cultural Health Report. Using a chi-square test, the researchers found that there is a direct link between ethnicity and health status, and policymakers should consider implementing methods to reduce health disparities between minority groups.


This summary information describes the methods used in the report. As with other briefings, it is written in the past tense. The abstract provides the reader with a summary of the research already carried out.

Informative summary example 6

We examine the contradictions of decolonization as official state policy. Using decolonization themes from literature, we discuss how oppressed people develop persuasive politics that create new systems of power. Intersectionality is also discussed. Historical analysis has established that decolonization and the construction of political identity do not occur as reactionary avenues but as conscious means of regaining access to power and privilege. The cultivation of new political and social identities promotes social cohesion in formerly colonized nation-states and paves the way for future means of identity construction.


This summary is informative, but because it is not a unique empirical research design, it is written differently than other informative summaries. Researchers use a parallel tone, style, and diction to those found in the body of the text. The most important questions are clarified.

Informative summary example 7


Implementation of a national mandatory influenza vaccination program in Maconda country should reduce rates of preventable diseases. This study was designed to measure the cost-effectiveness of the mandatory vaccination program.


This is a cohort study evaluating rates of new influenza cases in children (age > 8 years) and adults (age > 18 years). Using the Maconda National Baseline Data Report, researchers compiled new case data (n=2,034) from 2014 to 2018.


A total of 45 new cases were reported in 2014 and 2015, after which the number of new cases fell by 74%.


The significant decrease in new cases of influenza is due to the introduction of compulsory vaccination.


The mandatory vaccination program is profitable due to its effectiveness in controlling the disease.


This method of writing an informative summary divides the content into appropriate topic headings. This style makes it easier for some readers to quickly scan the summary.

Informative summary example 8

Mindfulness-based meditation and mindfulness-based stress reduction techniques have been shown to reduce burnout and improve employee engagement. Using a pre-test/post-test design, researchers randomly assigned nurses (n=136) to control and experimental groups. The main intervention for the experimental group was the Kabat-Zinn mindfulness-based stress reduction technique. Quantitative results showed significant improvements on the self-report scales for depression and anxiety. Nurse leaders and administrators should consider implementing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program to reduce burnout and improve overall nurse performance.


(Video) Modern Art - Some Abstract Mining and Hunting Concepts 15/09/2018

This summary contains all the necessary information you need to assess whether the research was relevant to your study. When writing an informational summary, consider taking one sentence from each of your research sections (introduction/background, methods, findings, and conclusion).

Descriptive Summary Example 1

What inspires people to join a new religious movement or "sect"? This literature review offers some suggestions on the psychological and sociological motivations for joining a new religious movement and offers suggestions for future research.


Unlike informative summaries, descriptive summaries simply draw the reader's attention to the essence of the article. Reading this summary doesn't tell you exactly what the researchers found out about your topic, but it does let the reader know what the topic was and what in generalmethodsused to conduct the research.

Descriptive Summary Example 2

With few Holocaust survivors left, it becomes crucial for historians to gather as much data as can contribute to a general understanding of the way trauma is embedded in identity. Interviews with five Holocaust survivors reveal new information about the role art and music play in self-healing and community healing.


This descriptive summary does not provide much information, it merely tells the reader that the researcher used interviews and a case study research design. Although this is a brief description of the study, the researchers summarize the content and results succinctly.

Descriptive Summary Example 3

Absurd theater and literature have greatly influenced playwrights in France and England. This analysis of the theater of the absurd looks at the main symbols used in the literature of the absurd and traces the evolution of these symbols in parallel with historical events.


As with most descriptive summaries, this example is brief. You can use descriptive abstracts to give the reader an overview of non-empirical research, such as B. literary criticism to give.

Descriptive Summary Example 4

Oscar Niemeyer's architecture reflects the socialist sensibility in Brasilia's urban planning. This research examines the philosophical underpinnings of Niemeyer's design through the analysis of several of the main elements of the National Congress of Brazil. The implications and influences of Niemeyer's work are also discussed.


Note that with the descriptive abstract you are writing more abstractly and factually about the research than with an informative abstract.

Descriptive Summary Example 5

Jacques Derrida has written extensively on the symbolism and metonymy of 9/11. In this study we criticize Derrida's position, arguing that terrorism is best understood in a neorealist framework. Derrida's analysis lacks coherence, is pompous and verbose, and unnecessarily abstract given the need for a convincing counter-terrorism strategy.


Like most descriptive abstracts, this one summarizes the main idea of ​​the research, but doesn't necessarily follow the same format you might use in an informative abstract. While an informative abstract follows the chronological structure of the article it presents, with introduction, methods, findings, and conclusion, a descriptive abstract focuses only on the main idea.

Descriptive Summary Example 6

The five-factor personality model is well established in the literature and is one of the most reliable and valid methods for measuring success. In this study, we used the five-factor model to show when the traits of neuroticism and introversion, typically associated with low success rates, actually correlate with performance in specific job areas. Implications and suggestions for physicians are discussed.


This descriptive summary does not discuss the methodology used in the research, which distinguishes it from an informative summary. However, the description contains the basic elements contained in the report.

Descriptive Summary Example 7

This is a case study of a mid-sized company looking at the skills needed to enter the Indian retail market. The focus on Mumbai and Bangalore and the expansion into these markets show potential challenges for European companies. A comparative case with a failed expansion to Wuhan, China is provided and offers an explanation for the fact that there are no global intercultural competences that can be applied in all cases.


Although this descriptive summary shows the reader what the article is about, it omits the methods and results. A descriptive summary is shorter than an informative summary.

What type of summary should I use?

Check with your professors or academic advisors, or with the publisher of the peer-reviewed journal, before determining what type of abstract is right for you.

If you have done original empirical research in the social sciences, you will most likely want to use an informative summary.

However, if you're writing about the arts or humanities, a descriptive summary might work better.

What information should an abstract contain?

The information you include in the summary depends on the content of your report.

Consider dividing your abstract into five separate components that roughly match the structure of your original research.

You can write a sentence or two in each of these sections:

(Video) Herbie PLDI’15 Video Abstract

For original empirical investigations

I. Background/Introduction

If you have done or will do original research, consider the following elements for your abstract:

What was your hypothesis?

What has the previous literature said about your topic?

Which gaps in the literature do you fill with your research?

What are the research questions?

What problem are you trying to solve?

What point of view or theoretical approach did you choose?

II. Methods

what was yoursDesign of the investigation(qualitative, quantitative, multifactorial, mixed methods)?

What was the attitude? Did you do a clinical analysis? Or have you carried out a systematic literature search or aMeta-Analyseof files?

How many subjects was it?

How did you collect the data?

How did you analyze the data?

What are the methodological weaknesses?

3. Results

If the study is qualitative, what were the main findings?

If it was a quantitative study, what were the key findings? Was there an alpha coefficient? What was the standard deviation?

Were the results statistically significant?

IV. Discussion

Did the results prove or disprove this?hypothesis?

Were the results significant enough to inform future research?

How do your findings relate to previous research? Does your research confirm previous literature or does it go beyond it?

V. Conclusions/Recommendations

What do your results say about the research question or problem?

If you had to make a policy recommendation or suggestion to other academics, what would you say?

Any final thoughts or general impressions?

(Video) Abstract Tattoos 2018 HD - Best Abstract Tattoo Designs

Writing abstracts for literary criticism and humanities research

Writing abstracts for research that is not empirical in nature does not involve the same steps you might follow when writing an abstract for the natural or social sciences.

When writing an arts and humanities abstract, use the following outline and write a sentence or two for each section:

I. Background/Introduction

What other scholars have said before.

Why do you agree or disagree?

Why is it important to study this?

II. Your Methods or Procedures

How did you conduct your research?

Did you analyze a specific text, case study or artwork?

Do you compare and contrast?

Which philosophical or theoretical model did you use?

3. Recommendations

What did you find out in your research?

IV. Discussion/Conclusion

How meaningful are your findings?

What new discoveries have you made?

How does your work contribute to the discourse?

General tips for writing summaries

The best way to improve your abstract writing skills is to read more abstracts. Reading other summaries will help you better understand what is expected and what should or should not be included in the summary.

Reading summaries will help you become familiar with the tone, style, and structure of the summaries.

Write your abstract after completing your research.

Many successful abstracts actually include the first sentence of each section of your research, such as: B. Introduction/Background, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion and Conclusion.

While it's a good idea to write down the results of your original research, avoid giving too much detail. Instead, focus on what really matters.

A good summary is like an elevator pitch.

While there is no absolute rule for abstract length, a general rule of thumb is around 100-150 words. However, some descriptive summaries may be shorter and some informative summaries longer.


Summaries are even shorter versions of summaries. Although summaries are short and appear relatively simple, they can be difficult to write. If you're having trouble writing your abstract, just think about the main ideas of your original research paper and pretend you're summarizing that research for a friend.

If you want more examples of strong abstracts in your research field, or need help writing your abstract or doing research, call a writing tutor.


"Summaries", (s.f.). The Writing Center. https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/abstracts/

(Video) How to Write an Abstract Step-by-Step (With Easy Examples)

Koopman, P. (1997). How to write a summary. https://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/essays/abstract.html

University of Massachusetts, Amherst (nd). Write a summary.

"Writing summaries of reports", (s.f.). Purdue online writing lab. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/656/1/


1. Abstract Submission for Conference 2018 6
(Kamlesh Bhargava)
2. Abstract: The Art of Design | Tinker Hatfield: Footwear Design | FULL EPISODE | Netflix
3. ABSTRACT REASONING TESTS - Sample questions and answers
4. Calendar Question | Reasoning Question | Maths Tricks #shorts #mathstrick
(Success Ka Runway)
5. How to submit your abstracts for UIP 2018
(XVIII World Congress of Phlebology)
6. Using ChatGPT for writing in research


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Mrs. Angelic Larkin

Last Updated: 05/28/2023

Views: 6154

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (67 voted)

Reviews: 82% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Mrs. Angelic Larkin

Birthday: 1992-06-28

Address: Apt. 413 8275 Mueller Overpass, South Magnolia, IA 99527-6023

Phone: +6824704719725

Job: District Real-Estate Facilitator

Hobby: Letterboxing, Vacation, Poi, Homebrewing, Mountain biking, Slacklining, Cabaret

Introduction: My name is Mrs. Angelic Larkin, I am a cute, charming, funny, determined, inexpensive, joyous, cheerful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.